Testing is an integral part of software development and it's required to deliver a complete and reliable software. In this post, we will discuss the major difference between the two most important software testing techniques i.e. Black Box Testing and White Box Testing.
White Box Testing is also called Structural Testing, Clear Box Testing or Low-Level Testing.
Black Box Testing is also called Functional Testing, Closed Testing or High-Level Testing.
Black Box Testing focuses on testing the functionality of the software being developed, hence code is not required for it.
White Box Testing tests the code structure, hence it needs the code to understand the implementation of the software being tested.
Generally, developers will do White Box Testing and remain responsible for the same.
A separate testing team must perform the Black Box Testing to reveal more defects for better reliability. In most cases, the testing team remains available within the same premise. In case the project budget allows, a different testing team involves in performing the Black Box Testing based on the criticality of the Software.
Black Box Testing requires the software requirements specification document to start preparing the test plan and then test the software as delivered by the developers.
White Box Testing requires both high level and low-level documents to effectively test the underlying system.
White Box Testing aims to test the logic and implementation of the software whereas Black Box Testing focuses on testing the behavior or functionality of the software.
Programming and Implementation
White Box Testing needs programming knowledge since it performs low-level testing. The testing(generally developer) must be fully aware of the implementation details of the software being tested.
Black Box Testing does not need any prior knowledge of programming language being used to develop the software. The testers performing the Black Box Testing does not need implementation details.
Types of Testing
White Box Testing includes Path Testing and Control Structure Testing. The Path Testing can be done using Flow Graph and Cyclomatic Testing whereas structural testing can be done using Conditions Testing, Data Flow Testing, and Loop Testing.
Black Box Testing types include Graph-Based Testing, Equivalence Partitioning, Boundary Value Analysis, Comparison Testing and Orthogonal Array Testing.